“The Major Interdisciplinary Journal in the Field of Employment and Labor Relations”
-Daniel J.B. Mitchell
Volume 54, Issue 3
The Journal is available in the IRLE Library and in the Wiley Online Library (subscription required): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/irel.2015.54.issue-3/issuetoc
This paper theorizes and provides evidence for the segregation of men into clustered occupations and women into dispersed occupations in advance of marriage and in anticipation of future colocation problems. Using the Decennial Census, and controlling for occupational characteristics, I find evidence of this general pattern of segregation, and also find that the minority of the highly educated men and women who depart from this equilibrium experience delayed marriage, higher divorce, and lower earnings. Results are consistent with the theory that marriage and mobility expectations foment a self-fulfilling pattern of occupational segregation with individual departures deterred by earnings and marriage penalties.
It is difficult to establish empirically whether or not there is positive assortative matching in the labor market. We use longitudinal data from a 24-hour relay marathon in Belluno, Italy, in which participants are affiliated with teams, to study group dynamics in a manner that closely resembles workers' accessions to and separations from firms. In our dataset the productivity of the individual agents is measured and we exploit this by investigating the determinants of accessions, separations, and assortative matching. We find support for the existence of positive assortative matching; i.e., better runners moving to better teams in subsequent years.
This paper studies the relationship between teacher unionization and student achievement. Generally stable patterns of teacher unionization since the 1970s have historically presented challenges in measuring the effects of unionization on educational production. However, the blossoming of the charter school sector in recent decades provides fertile ground for study because while most charters are nonunion, teachers at some charters have unionized. Using a generalized difference-in-difference approach combining California union certification data with student achievement data from 2003–2012, we find that, aside from a one-year dip in achievement associated with the unionization process itself, unionization does not affect student achievement.
This article investigates first contract arbitration's (FCA) capacity to foster bargaining relationships and deter misconduct by analyzing its effect on decertifications. Using time-series cross-sectional (TSCS) analysis with data from nine Canadian provinces over a four-decade period, it shows: (1) FCA correlates with 20 to 37 percent fewer decertifications in provinces that have an FCA provision relative to those that do not; (2) of the various types of FCA, the automatic and fault forms have the most robust effect on decertifications while the mediation-arbitration form may have the largest effect on decertifications; and (3) the effect of FCA is heightened in the presence of card-check certification such that the best results for fostering bargaining relationships may be found in the presence of both policies.
This study investigates the associations between self-assessed adverse labor market events (experiencing problems with coworkers, employment changes, financial strain) and health. Longitudinal data are obtained from the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. Our findings suggest problems with coworkers, employment changes, and financial strain are associated, respectively, with a 3.1 percent (3.3 percent), 0.9 percent (0.2 percent), and 4.5 percent (5.1 percent) reduction in mental health among men (women). Associations are smaller in magnitude and less significant for physical health.
Using a large micro dataset from Japan, this paper provides evidence on the relationship between postgraduate education and labor-market outcomes. According to the analysis, the key findings include: (1) The employment-to-population rates of females and elderly people with postgraduate educations are higher than those with undergraduate educations. (2) The postgraduate wage premium relative to undergraduates is approximately 30–40 percent, which is similar in magnitude for male and female workers. (3) The wage reduction after age 60 is less for workers with a postgraduate education. (4) The private rate of return to postgraduate education exceeds 10 percent.