“The Major Interdisciplinary Journal in the Field of Employment and Labor Relations”
-Daniel J.B. Mitchell
Volume 53, Issue 2
The Journal is available in the Library and online in the Wiley Online Library (subscription required):
The results of this study, which uses data from the 2007–2008 Canadian Community Health Survey, suggest that job satisfaction may vary with sexual orientation. Probit regression analysis indicated that compared to heterosexuals, gay men and lesbians tended to be less satisfied with their jobs. Bisexuals appear to be more satisfied. Additional research is needed to corroborate the findings and the reasons for the differences.
Works Councils, Collective Bargaining, and Apprenticeship Training – Evidence From German Firms (pages 199–222)
Ben Kriechel, Samuel Muehlemann, Harald Pfeifer and Miriam Schütte
In this paper, we investigate the effects of works councils on apprenticeship training in Germany. The German law attributes works councils substantial information and co-determination rights to training-related issues. Thus, works councils may also have an impact on the cost-benefit relation of workplace training. Using detailed firm-level data containing information on the costs and benefits of apprenticeship training, we find that firms with works councils make a significantly higher net investment in training compared to firms without such an institution. We also find that the fraction of former trainees still employed with the same firm 5 years after training is significantly higher in the presence of works councils, thus enabling firms to recoup training investments over a longer time horizon. Furthermore, all works council effects are much more pronounced for firms covered by collective bargaining agreements.
Multiple Job Holding, Skill Diversification, and Mobility (pages 223–272)
Georgios A. Panos, Konstantinos Pouliakas and Alexandros Zangelidis
In this article, we investigate the interrelated dynamics of dual jobholding, human capital, occupational choice, and mobility, using a panel sample (1991–2005) of UK employees from the British Household Panel Survey. The evidence suggests that individuals may be using multiple jobholding as a conduit for obtaining new skills and expertise and as a stepping-stone to new careers, also involving self-employment. Individuals doing a different secondary job than their primary occupation are more likely to switch to a new primary job in the next year, and a job that is different than their current primary employment. The results show that there are human capital spillover effects between primary and secondary employment.
Do Responsible Contractor Policies Increase Construction Bid Costs?
C. Jeffrey Waddoups and David C. May
Beginning in 2000, some school districts in Ohio required contractors to incorporate health insurance coverage, among other items, into their bids. Such responsible contractor policies (RCPs) are controversial because they may raise costs. This study sheds empirical light on the controversy. We estimate construction bid costs using data on elementary school projects bid in Ohio from 1997 to 2008, some of which were covered by an RCP and others of which were not. The results indicate that once we account for variation in geographic location of schools, RCPs exert no statistically discernible impact on construction bid costs.
Using the linked employer–employee component from the National Employer Survey, I examine the effect of employees’ participation in high-involvement work practices (HIWP) on their opportunities for promotion within the organization. I find participation in HIWP to be positively related to promotion opportunities for individuals, especially for those in lower hierarchical levels and for the supervisors of these levels. In part, these findings can be explained by the new skills acquired while participating in these practices through formal training and informal on-the-job learning, and by the use of promotions as an incentive mechanism to motivate workers to engage in HIWP.
This study examines the impact of unionized labor on supermarket performance, as measured by profit and sales, accounting for the competitive presence of supercenters. The results confirm prior research that shows that supercenters have negative effects on supermarket performance. Unionized supermarkets generally outperform nonunionized supermarkets. However this effect disappears when accounting for supercenters, largely because unionized stores are less likely to compete with supercenters. I find no evidence for a significant union effect on supermarket performance. The deleterious effects of supercenters are stronger for unionized stores. Unionized supermarkets utilize less full-time labor and more labor-saving technology than do nonunionized ones.