Areas of Expertise/Interest:
- Employment Discrimination
- Labor Economics
- Racial Inequality
- Urban Economics
Steve Raphael received his Ph.D. in economics from UC Berkeley in 1996. His primary fields of concentration are labor and urban economics. Raphael has authored several research projects investigating the relationship between racial segregation in housing markets and the relative employment prospects of African-Americans. Raphael has also written theoretical and empirical papers on the economics of discrimination, the role of access to transportation in determining employment outcomes, the relationship between unemployment and crime, the role of peer influences on youth behavior, the effect of trade unions on wage structures, and homelessness.
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- "The Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis of Black Youth Joblessness: Evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area," Journal of Urban Economics, 43(1): 79-111, (1998).
- "Intervening Opportunities, Competing Searchers, and the Intra-Metropolitan Flow of Male Youth Labor," Journal of Regional Science, 38(1): 43-59, (1998).
- "Inter and Intra-Ethnic Comparisons of the Central City-Suburban Youth Employment Differential: Evidence from the Oakland Metropolitan Area," Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 51(3): 505-524, (1998).
- "Geographic Mobility, Race, and Wage Differentials" with David Riker, Journal of Urban Economics, 45(1): 17-46, (1999).
- "Estimating the Union Earnings Effect Using a Sample of Displaced Workers," Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 53(3): 503-521, (2000).
- "Racial Differences in Spatial Job Search Patterns: Exploring the Causes and Consequences," with Michael Stoll, Economic Geography, 76(3): 201-223, (2000).
- "Are Suburban Firms More Likely to Discriminate Against African-Americans?," with Michael Stoll and Harry Holzer, Journal of Urban Economics, 48(3): 485-508, (2000).
- "High-Tech Industries in California: Panacea or Problem," with Clair Brown and Ben Campbell, in Ong, Paul and James Lincoln (eds.), The State of California Labor, Institute of Industrial Relations, Berkeley: CA pp. 149-160 (2001).
- "Immigration Reform and the Earnings of Latino Workers: Do Employer Sanctions Cause Discrimination," with Cynthia Bansak, Industrial & Labor Relations Review. 54(2): 275-295, (2001).
- "Homeless in America: Homeless in California," with John Quigley and Eugene Smolensky, Review of Economics and Statistics, 83(1): 37-51, (2001).
- "Identifying the Effect of Unemployment on Crime," with Rudolf Winter-Ebmer, Journal of Law & Economics, 44(1): 259-284 (2001).
- "School-Based Peer Effects and Juvenlie Behavior," with Alejandro Gaviria, Review of Economics and Statistics, 83(2): 257-268 (2001).
- "Can Boosting Minority Car-Ownership Rates Narrow Inter-Racial Employment Gaps?," with Michael Stoll, in William G. Gale and Janet Rothenberg Pack (eds), The Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Economic Affairs, volume 2, The Brookings Institution: Washington, DC: pp 99-145 (2001).
- "Homelessness in California," with John Quigley and Eugene Smolensky, Public Policy Institute of California Monograph Series, San Francisco: CA (2001).
- "The Economic of Homelessness: A View from North America," with John Quigley, European Journal of Housing Policy, 1(3): 323-336 (2001).
- "Immigration Reform and the Earnings of Latino Workers: Do Employer Sanctions Cause Discrimination?" with Cynthia Bansak, (reprinted from Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 54(2): 275-295, (2001)) Immigration and National Law Review, 22 (2002).
- "Examining Policies to Reduce Homelessness Using a General Equilibrium Model of the Housing Market," with Erin Mansur, John Quigley, and Eugene Smolensky, Journal of Urban Economics. 52: 316-340 (2002).
- "Car Ownership, Employment, and Earnings," with Lorien Rice, Journal of Urban Economics, 52: 109-130 (2002).
- "The Anatomy of 'The Anatomy of Racial Inequality'" Journal of Economic Literature, 40(4): 1202-1214, (2002).
- "Modest Progress: The Narrowing Spatial Mismatch Between Blacks and Jobs in the 1990s," with Michael A. Stoll, The Brookings Institution: Washington, DC , (2002).
- "Prison Sentence Enhancements: The Case of Project Exile," with Jens Lud wig, forthcoming, Evaluating Gun Policy: Effects on Crime and Violence, edited by Jens Ludwig and Philip J. Cook, Brookings Institution Press, (2003).
- "Life Terms or Death Sentences: The Uneasy Relationship Between Judicial Elections and Capital Punishment," with Richard Brooks, Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 92(3): 609-640, (2003).
- "Public Transit and the Spatial Distribution of Minority Employment: Evi dence from a Natural Experiment," with Harry J. Holzer and John M. Quigley, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 22(3): 415-442 (2003).
- "Black Job Applicants and the Hiring Officer's Race," with Harry Holzer and Michael Stoll, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 57(2): 267-287 (2004).
- "Local Land Use Controls and Demographic Outcomes in a Booming Economy," with Joh n Quigley and Larry Rosenthal, Urban Studies, 41(2): 389-421 (2004).
- "The Effect of an Increase in Workers' Compensation BEnefits on the Duration and Frequency of Benefit Receipt," with Frank Neuhauser, Review of Economics and Statistics, 86(1): 288-302 (2004).
- "Is Housing Unaffordable? Why Isn't it More Affordable?" with John Quigley, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18(1): 191-214.
- "Will Employers Hire Ex-Offenders? Employer Preferences, Background Chec ks, and Their Determinants," with Harry J. Holzer and Michael A. Stoll, in Mary Patillo-McCoy, David Weiman and Bruce Western (eds.), The Impact of Incarceration on Families and Communities, New York: NY, Russell Sage Foundation (2004).
- "The Effect of Prison Releases on Regional Crime Rates," with Michael Stoll, in William G. Gale and Janet Rothenberg Pack (eds.), The Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Economics Affairs, Volume 5, The Brookings Institution: Washington, D.C. (2005).
- "The Anatomy of Rent Burdens: Immigration, Growth, and Rental Housing," with Erica Greulick and John Quigley, in William G. Gale and Janet Rothenberg Pack (eds.), The Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Economics Affairs, Volume 5, The Brookings Institution: Washington , D.C. (2005).
- "Identifying the Effect of Unemployment on Crime," with Rudlof Winter-Ebmer (reprinted from Journal of Law & Economics, 44(1): 259-284(2001)) Ehrlich, Isaac and Shiqiang Liu (eds.), The Economics of Crime, Edward Elgar Publixhing, UK (2005).
- "Urban Crime, Race, and the Criminal Justice System in the United States," with Melissa Sills, forthcoming in Companion to the Handbook of Urban Economics , Richard Arnott and Dan McMillen (eds.) .
- "Employers in the Boom: How Did the Hiring of Less-Skilled Workers Change During the 1990s?" with Harry Holzer and Michael Stoll, forthcoming Review of Economics and Statistics.
- "Regulation and the High Cost of Housing in California," with John Quigley, forthcoming American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings
- "Perceived Criminality, Criminal Background Checks, and the Racial Hiring Practices of Employers," with Harry Holzer and Michael Stoll, forthcoming Journal of Law & Economics.
- "The Socioeconomic Status of Black Males: The Increasing Importance of Incarceration," forthcoming in Auerbach, Alan; Card, David, and John Quigley (eds.), Poverty, the Distribution of Income, and Public Policy, Russell Sage Foundation: New York.
- "Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Massachusetts Workforce Development System Using No-Shows as a Non-Experimental Comparison Group," with Michael Stol l, forthcoming, Evaluation Review.
- "How Do Crime and Incarceration Affect the Employment Prospects of Less Educated Black Men?" with Harry Holzer and Michael Stoll in Ronald Mincy (ed.) Black Males Left Behind, The Urban Institute: Washington, D.C. (2006)
- "The Effects of State Policy Design Features on Take Up and Crowd Out Rates for the State Children's Health Insurance Program," with Cynthia Bansak, forthcoming Journal of Policy Analysis and Management.
- "The Deinstitutionalization of the Mentally Ill and Growth in the U.S. Prison Population: 1971 to 1996," manuscript.
- "The Impact of Local Labor Market Conditions on the Likelihood that Parolees are Returned to Custody," with David Weiman.
- "The Effect of an Applicant's Criminal History on Employer Hiring Decisions and Screening Practices: Evidene from Los Angeles," with Harry Holzer and Michael Stoll, National Poverty Center Working Paper, #04-15.
- "The State Children's Health Insurance Program and Job Mobility: Identifying Job Lock among Working Parents in Near-Poor Households," with Cynthia Bansak.
- "The Effect of Male Incarceration Dynamics on AIDS Infection Rates Among African-American Women and Men," with Rucker Johnson, National Poverty Center Working Paper #06-22 (2006).
- "Reconciling National and Regional Estimates of the Effects of Immigration on U.S. Labor Markets: The Confounding Effects of Native Male Incarceration Trends," with Lucas Ronconi.
- "Early Incarceration Spells and the Transition to Adulthood."
- "Socioeconomic Differences in Household Automobile Ownership Rates: Implications for Evacuation Policy," with Alan Berube and Elizabeth Deakin.
Work in Progress
- "Assessing the Effects of State Prison Sentences of Post-Release Earnings and Employment."