Living Conditions of Individuals in Poor and Non-Poor Families


1 Welfare is defined as including Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), general assistance (GA), emergency assistance, Cuban Refugee Assistance, Indian Assistance, Alaska Longevity Pay, and job training grants, such as Job Corps.

2 About 9 percent of all households with children were classified as poor using this definition compared to the 16-18 percent of families with children classified as poor by the Census Bureau for the same time period.

3 Thresholds are adjusted for age, family size, and number of children. (For example, to see poverty thresholds for 1992 see US Department of Commerce 1993)

4 For each survey, appendix B lists poverty rates and descriptions of the calculation of poverty status.

5 Person-weights are available in the SIPP. For the AHS, CE, and CPS, we had to create person-weights using the population household or consumer unit weight multiplied by the number persons in the family.

6 The CE, CPS, and SIPP include only families where the child is related to the household head by birth or legal arrangement.

7 The AHS defines welfare as including AFDC, general assistance (GA), and supplemental security (SSI); the CE uses the same definition as Passero (1996); the CPS includes AFDC and public assistance; the NMIHS includes only AFDC (received at some point during the year before the birth of the child or at the time of the interview), and the SIPP includes only AFDC (received at some point in the month before the interview). A comparable measure of welfare assistance is not available in the other surveys.

8 For those individuals who are both poor and receive welfare, family income is $7,706 and 56.2% comes from public assistance and welfare.

9 Family expenditures for those individuals who are both poor and receiving welfare are $11,012 and the share spent on necessities is 78.6%.

10 HUD defines moderate (severe) upkeep problems as the presence of three (five) or more of the following six problems: broken plaster or peeling paint, rats or mice, cracks in the wall, pipes or plumbing leaks, dents or holes in the floor, and roof, window, or basement leaks.

11 Crime results from the NCVS are presented for individuals in poor and non-poor households.

12 The respondent reports that, in the past month, there were times when the he/she wanted to go somewhere but stayed home instead because he/she thought it would be unsafe to leave home.

13 The income differentials in birth outcomes hold across age groups.

14 Students who drop out of school before their sophomore year of high school are not included in the sample. Differences may be slightly greater is they are included.

15 For the SIPP, we define moderate upkeep problems as having 3 or 4 of the following: leaking roof or ceiling; toilet, hot water heater, plumbing not working; broken windows; exposed wiring; holes in the floor; cracks or holes in wall or ceiling; and rats, mice, or roaches. Severe problems are 5 or more of the above.

16 Specifically, we include all variables, except "lives without a color television", for which 95 percent or more of non-poor individuals do not live in families that report the deprivation.

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