Competitive Semiconductor Manufacturing Human Resource project began
in July, 1993 as an adjunct to the CSM multi-year research program,
which was designed to study semiconductor manufacturing performance
worldwide. The CSM main study is a joint program of the College of Engineering,
the Institute of Industrial Relations (IIR), and the Haas School of
Business under the sponsorship of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and
with the cooperation of semiconductor producers from the United States,
Asia, and Europe. Professors David Hodges and Robert Leachman are the
This is the final report covering
the first phase of CSM-HR research. Our research mission was to understand
how human resource practices influence manufacturing performance. To
do this we collected and analyzed data from sixteen manufacturing fabs,
including two questionnaires sent to fabs, data collected through site
interviews and observations, a special survey of engineers, and personnel
data covering sixteen years of one major company.
The CSM-HR group is led by Professor
Clair Brown and currently includes graduate students Melissa Appleyard,
Ben Campbell, Rene Kamita, Dan Rascher, and Vince Valvano. Past members
have included Professor Michael Reich, postdoctoral fellow David Bowen,
the late Dr. Vinay Sohoni, and graduate student Jumbi Edulbehram. We
have been very fortunate to have collaborated in the past with Professor
Sara Beckman and graduate students Diane Bailey, Nile Hatch, Baruch
Saeed, and Linda Sattler from the CSM main study.
This project reflects the synergy
of the engineers and social scientists who worked together to collect
and analyze the data. This report reflects their collective wisdom,
and as social scientists we have valued the opportunity to work with
our engineer colleagues in studying this high-tech industry. Dean David
Hodges was instrumental in creating the supportive environment between
the engineers and social scientists. Professor Robert Leachman continually
shared his knowledge and insights concerning semiconductor manufacturing.
We are grateful to Diane Bailey, Dave Bowen, and Rob Leachman for their
detailed comments, which improved the report.
We are deeply grateful to the managers,
engineers, and workers at the companies who participated in our study.
They generously gave their time and patiently answered our questions
even as they were responding to intense production demands. However,
they must remain anonymous in order to protect the company identities.
We are also grateful to our colleagues
on the Sloan HR Network, who provided valuable feedback and encouragement.
This group of academics is headed by Professor Tom Kochan, who has provided
strong intellectual leadership and who ensured that the study of HR
systems would be a part of the Sloan industry studies.
The staff at the Institute of Industrial
Relations provided us with invaluable help and support. We would like
to thank Frozan Wahaj, who produced our reports, which was challenging
with a group of researchers from multiple departments; Myra Armstrong,
who arranged meetings and travel plans and helped to keep us organized;
Elaine Meckenstock, who oversaw a very complicated budget and grant
project; and business manager Diane Leite, who ensured that IIR was
an efficient and welcoming place to work.
Finally, we are especially grateful
to the Sloan Foundation for funding this program. In particular, we
would like to thank Ralph Gomory and Hirsch Cohen for their probing
questions and appreciation of our work. Hirsch Cohen always expressed
faith that we would reach the correct destination even when he thought
we might be on the wrong track. He has been an important part of our
program. We are also pleased to be working more recently with Frank
Mayadas and Gail Pesyna at the Sloan Foundation. They bring new insights
and guidance to our project.
THE COMPETITIVE SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING
HUMAN RESOURCES PROJECT